Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler

On this Date;
Feb. 24, 1864

First African-American woman to become a physician in the United States

Rebecca Davis Lee Crumpler
Born: February 8, 1831
Died: March 9, 1895

was an American physician.
In 1831, Rebecca Davis Lee was born in Delaware to Matilda Webber and Absolum Davis. She was raised in Pennsylvania by an aunt who cared for infirm neighbors. She moved to Charlestown, Massachusetts, by 1852 and was employed as a nurse until she was accepted into the New England Female Medical College in 1860.

When she graduated Feb. 24, 1864, Rebecca Lee (later Crumpler) was the first African-American woman in the United States to earn a Doctor of Medicine degree, and the only African-American woman to graduate from New England Female Medical College.

Crumpler first practiced medicine in Boston, primarily for poor women and children. During this time she “sought training in the ‘British Dominion'”.

After the American Civil War ended in 1865, she moved to Richmond, Virginia, believing it to be “a proper field for real missionary work, and one that would present ample opportunities to become acquainted with the diseases of women and children.

Crumpler worked for the Freedmen’s Bureau to provide medical care to freed slaves; She was subject to “intense racism”: “men doctors snubbed her, druggist balked at filling her prescriptions, and some people wisecracked that the M.D. behind her name stood for nothing more than ‘Mule Driver'”.

Rebecca married Dr. Arthur Crumpler around the time of her graduation. She “entered into the work with renewed vigor, practicing outside, and receiving children in the house for treatment; regardless, in a measure, of remuneration.”

She was no longer practicing medicine by 1883 when she wrote A Book of Medical Discourses from the notes she kept over the course of her medical career. It was dedicated to nurses and mothers, and focused on the medical care of women and children.

Crumpler died on March 9, 1895.

The Rebecca Lee Society, one of the first medical societies for African-American women, was named in her honor.

February 2019 Change Gospel Magazine

Check out this Months Issue of Change Gospel Magazine at:
Please read all the Wonderful Articles by these gifted writers. Also my article about H.H. Fowler’s Books in The Behind Closed Doors Series on Pages 26 to Pages 28 in the format of A Book Reviews in three books in this series. Please click on the link above. I want to personally gives gratitude to David Fowler Hawkins and his lovely wife Kerise Wynter Hawkins for allowing me to write my Articles in Change Gospel Magazine. Also please like the Change Gospel Magazine Facebook Page below: Be Blessed!!!!

I Am Nat Turner

Nat Turner was an African-American slave who led a two-day rebellion of slaves and free blacks in Southampton County, Virginia on August 21, 1831. The rebellion caused the death of approximately sixty white men, women and children. Whites organized militias and called out regular troops to suppress the uprising.

Black Ownership Isn’t The Answer To The Prison Problem

This Article is from PushBlack

Could Black-owned prisons be the solution 💡 to our incarceration problem? One misguided entrepreneur thinks so. Here’s where she went wrong.

The Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn, New York, was making national headlines for its deteriorating conditions, like no heat or electricity, and suffering inmates, according to reports.

Her outrageous idea got deservedly dragged. Still, let’s talk about the issue with this line of thinking. Prisons are directly linked to the institution of slavery. In fact, mass incarceration started as a replacement for slavery.

Sure, there were some Black people who had their own enslaved labor force, but it didn’t make the system of slavery any better! Further, privatized prisons have profit incentives, which is a REALLY BAD IDEA, Black-owned or not. Here’s why.

Private prison companies, like GEO Group and CoreCivic (formerly known as CCA), are connected to efforts to create laws that target Black people. Just as the Black Codes after slavery did. So, let’s be clear: the answer to prisons? It DEFINITELY isn’t a Black investment in them.

The Golden Thirteen

February 16, 1944: The Golden Thirteen began training.

This group was the 1st African-American Naval officer-training group in America.

In January of that year, the Naval officer corps was all white. Though there were some 100,000 African-American enlisted men in the Navy, none were officers. In response to growing pressure from American civil rights organizations, the leaders of the Navy reluctantly tackled commissioning a few as officers.

16 Black enlisted men were summoned to Camp Robert Smalls, Great Lakes Naval Training Station in Illinois; they included Jesse W. Arbor, Samuel Barnes, Philip Barnes, Dalton Baugh, George C. Cooper, Reginald Goodwin, James E. Hair, Graham E. Martin, Dennis Nelson, John W. Reagan, Frank E. Sublett Jr., William S. White, Charles Lear, Lewis Williams, J. B. Pinkney, and A. Alves. All the men had demonstrated excellent leadership abilities as enlisted men.

The pace was demanding and forced the sixteen men to band together so that all could succeed.

During their officer candidate training, they compiled a class average of 3.89, a record that has yet to be broken.

Although all passed the course, in March 1944, 13 of the group made history when they became the U.S. Navy’s 1st African-American commissioned and warrant officers on active duty. Twelve were commissioned as ensigns; the thirteenth was made a warrant officer. They became known as the Golden Thirteen.

Only one of the Golden Thirteen made a career of the Navy. The others made their marks in civilian life after World War II.

Dr. Bernard Harris

February 9, 1995: Dr. Bernard Harris became the 1st Black person to perform an extra-vehicular activity (spacewalk), during the second of his two Space Shuttle flights.

🚀Harris is a member of many professional,academic and service organizations, including the American College of Physicians, Honor Society of Phi Kappa Phi, and Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity.

🚀He is a board member of the Boys and Girls Club of Houston, National Math and Science Initiative, Medical Informatics, Technology and Applications Center, Houston Technology Center, and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Board of Scientific Counselors.

🚀He has been recognized several times by NASA and other organizations for his professional and academic achievements.

🚀In 1996 he received an honorary doctorate from the Morehouse College School of Medicine. He later received honorary doctorates from Stonybrook University, New Jersey Institute of Technology, and the University of Houston.

🚀He has also received a NASA Space flight medal, a NASA Award of Merit, a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the 2000 Horatio Alger Award.

🚀In 2005, the North East Independent School District in San Antonio, Texas named a middle school under construction after Harris. The Bernard Harris Middle School opened August 14, 2006, to have a capacity of 1500 students.

🚀In 2007, Dr. Harris joined the board of the National Math and Science Initiative.

🚀In 2008, he appeared in Microsoft’s “I’m a P.C.” ad campaign. Harris also gave a keynote speech at the Exxon Mobil Texas State Science and Engineering Fair.

🚀In 2009, he was elected Vice President of the American Telemedicine Association. He was elected President of the American Telemedicine Association in 2011, serving for a one-year term that ended in 2012.

🚀In 2010, he was part of the Dream Tour where he travelled to over 30 schools around the country.

🚀Currently, Dr. Harris is CEO of the National Math and Science Initiative and President and Chief Executive Officer of Vesalius Ventures, Inc., a venture capital accelerator, that invests in early-stage companies in Medical Informatics and Technology.

Ruby Bridges

Black History Month Lesson:

Ruby Bridges

At the tender age of six, Ruby Bridges advanced the cause of civil rights in November 1960 when she became the FIRST African American student to integrate an elementary school in the South.

Born on September 8, 1954, Bridges was the oldest of five children for Lucille and Abon Bridges, farmers in Tylertown, Mississippi. When Ruby was two years old, her parents moved their family to New Orleans, Louisiana in search of better work opportunities.

Ruby and her mother were escorted by four federal marshals to the school every day that year. She walked past crowds screaming vicious slurs at her. Undeterred, she later said she only became frightened when she saw a woman holding a black baby doll in a coffin. She spent her first day in the principal’s office due to the chaos created as angry white parents pulled their children from school. Ardent segregationists withdrew their children permanently. Ruby ate lunch alone and sometimes played with her teacher at recess, but she never missed a day of school that year.

PLEASE NOTE: this was not that long ago!!!

Black Lives Matter.
Black is beautiful. ❤ #LookUpandBeyond

Reverend William Holmes Borders

Black History Month

William Holmes Borders

William Holmes Borders Between 1937 and 1988, the Reverend William Holmes Borders served as pastor of Wheat Street Baptist Church in Atlanta, where he campaigned for civil rights and distinguished himself as a charismatic spokesperson for the city’s poor and dispossessed. Borders was instrumental in the hiring of Atlanta’s first black police officers in the 1940s, led the campaign to desegregate the city’s public transportation in the 1950s, and established the nation’s first federally subsidized, church-operated rental housing project in the 1960s. Thereafter, he continued to support a variety of philanthropic causes and remained an influential public figure in Atlanta until his death in 1993.

Triple L Movement Leaders
Borders was born in Macon on February 24, 1905, to Leila Birdsong and the Reverend James Buchanan Borders. His father served as pastor at Swift Creek Baptist Church; Borders later credited his own calling to his father’s influence and example.
After graduating from high school, Borders left home for Atlanta, where he attended Morehouse College. Despite running out of money after only two years, a number of sympathetic professors invited him to continue taking classes, and college president John Hope allowed the young man to graduate on the condition that he later repay the school.
Borders then attended Garrett Theological Seminary at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, on scholarship. There, he gained exposure to the Social Gospel, which greatly influenced his commitment to social justice, and continued his courtship of Julia Pate, a graduate of Spelman College who was then attending the University of Chicago. The two were married in 1931 and later had two children, William Holmes Jr. and Juel Pate. He completed his bachelor of divinity degree the following year and then accepted the pastorate of the Second Baptist Church in Evanston. In 1936 he earned a master’s degree from Northwestern.
Early Career
After serving as pastor for five years in Evanston, Borders received an invitation to return to Morehouse as an instructor. A year later, in 1937, he was offered the pastorate at Wheat Street Baptist Church, a historic institution on Auburn Avenue that was suffering from indebtedness and declining membership. Eager to return to the pulpit, Borders readily accepted and began the difficult task of reversing the church’s fortunes.
At Wheat Street, Borders proved himself an able administrator, instituting new accounting practices and settling the church’s debts within a few years. He also reached out to the poor, often recruiting new members from the taverns and pool halls along Auburn Avenue despite the protestations of senior church elders.
News of Border’s unorthodox approach and impressive achievements spread throughout the city, and by 1940 the young minister was widely regarded as one of black Atlanta’s most dynamic ministers and gifted orators. That year, a local radio station offered Borders weekly airtime to discuss matters of concern in the black community.
For twelve minutes every Sunday, Borders addressed an integrated radio audience, covering a wide range of subjects that included segregation, disfranchisement, wartime patriotism, and northern black migration, among others. The program was an immediate success, earning a large audience share among white and black listeners and quickly becoming the second-highest-rated broadcast in Atlanta. Many of the city’s influential white businessmen listened regularly, and a number offered Borders their help in improving conditions for Atlanta’s black population. Years later, Borders cited the broadcasts as an important first step in opening lines of communication between Atlanta’s black and white communities. In 1943 the radio addresses were collected into a single volume and published as Seven Minutes at the Mike in the Deep South.
Civil Rights
Following World War II (1941-45), Borders and other leaders in Atlanta’s black community became increasingly assertive in their pursuit of civil rights. Emboldened by the 1946 abolition of the white primary, the city’s black leadership forged a powerful voting bloc and skillfully applied political pressure to win concessions from city hall.
When Borders and a handful of other black leaders first approached Atlanta mayor William B. Hartsfield about hiring black police officers in the mid-1940s, for example, they were quickly rebuffed. “I remember very distinctly,” recalled Borders, “going to Mayor Hartsfield and asking him for black police. And he told us without the slightest blinking of an eye, that we’d get black police about as soon as we’d get deacons in the First Baptist Church, white.” However, after black voters provided the margin for victory in Hartsfield’s successful bid for reelection in 1946, the mayor became more receptive to their concerns. When Borders’s delegation returned in 1947 with the same request, Hartsfield simply asked, “How many do you want?”
Thereafter, Borders and other members of Atlanta’s black leadership maintained close ties with their counterparts in the white establishment, working behind the scenes and often coordinating civil rights activities to protect the city’s reputation for moderate race relations. Following the 1956 U.S. Supreme Court decision desegregating buses in Montgomery, Alabama, for example, Atlanta’s black leadership launched the Love, Law, and Liberation (or Triple L) Movement in order to force the desegregation of Atlanta’s public transportation system. Under Borders’s leadership, the group notified Mayor Hartsfield of its intention to violate municipal statutes by riding at the front of city buses and requested the mayor’s support in facilitating a peaceful arrest. Because he sought to protect Atlanta’s reputation for harmonious race relations, Hartsfield agreed.
On January 9, 1957, Borders and five other black ministers boarded a city bus and took their seats along the front rows. The driver returned the bus to the barn, and the ministers returned to the Wheat Street Baptist Church, where they were later arrested in a carefully scripted affair. Atlanta’s buses remained segregated for another two years before the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the ministers, thereby eliminating one of the most symbolic features of Atlanta’s Jim Crow social system.
Housing and Economics
Borders was among the first of his peers to recognize the relationship between economic freedom and civil rights, and he undertook early in his ministry to transform his church into a source of financial stability in the black community. To help secure jobs for his members, Borders organized a church employment agency and referral service. To encourage thrift and make available low interest loans, he formed the Wheat Street Baptist Church Credit Union. Later, he provided church day care services for working parents, and with the help of his daughter and son, who were both physicians, Borders established a church clinic to provide basic medical care.
Beginning in the late 1950s, however, when the city of Atlanta was preparing a massive program of urban renewal, Borders began to consider involving his church in a decidedly more ambitious undertaking. Acting in secret, without the knowledge of church deacons, he began studying the complex laws governing federal subsidies and seeking the advice of local attorneys, bankers, and board members at the Atlanta Housing Authority. After much consultation and prayer, Borders entered a bid on behalf of Wheat Street Baptist Church for 22.5 acres of urban renewal land in the vicinity of the church.
When he learned that the bid was successful, Borders called a meeting with the church’s board of directors to apprise them of his plans. With the financial backing of the Atlanta Life Insurance Company and generous government subsidies for nonprofit organizations, he explained, the church could construct a low-income apartment project that would ease the housing crunch in Atlanta’s black community and prevent the displacement of local blacks who lived on land scheduled for redevelopment. The project would be the first of its kind, a nonprofit, church-owned and-operated housing project for low-income residents.
The deacons unanimously supported Borders’s proposal, and on Sunday, April 26, 1963, groundbreaking ceremonies were held. Jet, Banks, and Russell, a local black-owned construction firm, completed the 280-unit Wheat Street Gardens by the end of the year. In 1972 the church added the Wheat Street Towers retirement home for elderly residents.
Post–Civil Rights Movement
During the first half of the 1960s a generational rift in Atlanta’s black community emerged. As chairman of the Student-Adult Liaison Committee, Borders attempted to bridge the divide that separated old guard conservatism from student activism. Although he was more successful at this task than some of his peers, Borders’s influence in the movement gradually diminished, and the old guard ultimately ceded its authority to younger and more assertive activists. Perhaps as a result of the black community’s political paradigm shift, Borders was defeated when he sought a seat in the state House of Representatives in 1965, 1970, and 1972.
Despite his electoral defeats, Borders remained an active figure in Atlanta’s public life until his retirement in 1988. He earned critical acclaim for his portrayal of Jesus Christ in a 1968 production of Behold the Man at Atlanta–Fulton County Stadium, and he represented the administration of U.S. president Richard Nixon on two trips to Japan in the 1970s. He continued to speak regularly at public events throughout the city well into the 1980s and served on the boards of numerous municipal, religious, and philanthropic organizations. Borders died of heart failure in Atlanta on November 23, 1993.